Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeon

Gynaecomastia is a term used to refer to excessive breast tissue in a male. Although there are many potential causes for gynaecomastia, in most cases it is first noticed after puberty and it is stable over time. Diet and exercise often make little difference to the appearance of gynaecomastia.

Some symptoms indicate an underlying medical reason for gynaecomastia. In this case investigations are performed to determine the cause.


The aim of gynaecomastia surgery is to return the male chest to a more pleasing shape. Ideally a male chest should be full over the pectoral region and should taper down to the fold underneath the breast. The area under the areolar is not flat and accordingly some fat needs to be left in this area to avoid the nipple being indented. The deeper fat component of the male breast is identified at the time of surgery and is preserved. The more superficial fat and glandular elements of the breast are addressed in order to correct the appearance of gynaecomastia.